2022 was the warmest year in Scotland

The Met Office has confirmed that 2022 was the warmest year on record in Scotland.

The average temperature was 8.5°C, beating the previous record of 8.43°C from 2014.

Across the UK, the average annual temperature last year topped 10°C for the first time at 10.03°C – beating the previous record of 9.88°C in 2014.

A study by Met Office scientists has found that human-induced climate change has made record annual temperatures 160 times more likely.

All four nations set heat records in 2022, with England having the highest average temperature of 10.94°C, followed by Wales (10.23°C), Northern Ireland (9.85°C) and then Scotland ( 8.5°C).

UK temperature map

UK temperature map

Scotland also hit its highest daily temperature on record this year when it hit 34.8°C (94.6°F) at Charterhall in the Borders on July 19.

Dr Mark McCarthy, head of the Met Office’s National Climate Information Center, said: “While this is any number, Britain’s crossing of the 10C annual mean temperature is a significant moment in our climatological history.

“This moment is not a surprise because since 1884, all 10 years with the highest annual temperature have been in 2003.

“It is clear from the observational data that man-made global warming is already affecting the UK climate.”

Latest figures show that 15 of the 20 warmest years on record in Britain have happened this century – with all of the top 10 in the last two decades.

The Met Office said that in the UK, an average temperature of 10C would be expected once every 500 years in a natural climate – before humans started producing the emissions responsible for climate change through activities such as burning fossil fuels.

But he said it could now happen every three to four years.

Dr McCarthy said: “Even with the impact of climate change, we don’t expect every year from now on to be the hottest on record.

“The natural variability of climate in the UK means there will always be some change from year to year, however when looking at long term trends it is easy to see the impact of climate change over time.”

Scotland experienced extreme weather in 2022.

A series of water scarcity warnings have been issued by the Scottish Environment Protection Agency (SEPA) over the summer months.

The situation in the east of the country was a worrying one, with water withdrawals on the River Tyne in East Lothian, the River Ythan in Aberdeenshire and Lower Tweed in the Borders.

Scotland was also on track for its coldest December in more than a decade after Aberdeenshire recorded the UK’s lowest maximum temperature in 12 years on December 12.

The Met Office confirmed the highest temperature recorded in Braemar was -9.3°C after overnight temperatures dropped to -15.7°C.

At the end of the year, the south of Scotland was placed under an amber warning for heavy rains, causing severe flooding in Dumfries and Galloway and major disruption to travel.

Flooding in Whitesands

Flooding in Whitesands when the River Nith overflowed its banks in December

In 2021, Scotland recorded its coldest winter since 2011 and hottest month since 2013.

The west of Scotland was much drier than usual, while the east was wetter.

The annual State of the UK Climate Report said warmer temperatures are the new normal and highlighted how climate change is affecting the UK.

Analysis box by Kevin Keane, BBC Scotland environmental correspondent

Analysis box by Kevin Keane, BBC Scotland environmental correspondent

Scientists have long warned against this, and people in developing countries have experienced it, but now climate change is being felt on our own land.

While Scotland may not have broken the double-digit average this year, at 8.5 degrees Celsius this is still 0.07 degrees Celsius higher than the previous record set in 2014 and 0.81 degrees above the average since 1990.

While these numbers may not sound like much, they can still have a profound impact.

Take the summer when many of us basked in the glorious sunshine, dry rivers meant farmers in Fife were losing their vegetable crops and emergency meetings were called to declare a food supply crisis.

The warmer weather also increases the intensity of rainfall, leading to flooding, which we have often experienced in recent months.

Experts are sure we need to emit less carbon dioxide into the atmosphere to slow down the pace of our climate change, yet there are still debates about how to do this and the impact on our industry, energy supply and jobs.

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